Coffee Drinking and The Incidence of Cardiovascular Disaease

This study looked at coffee drinkers and their risk of cardiovascular disease incidence.

They found that there is a J-shaped relationship.  On once the left side of the J shape are the abstainers, and they have a mild increased risk as compared to moderate coffee drinkers who had the lowest incidence represented by the bottom of the J shaped curve. On the right side of the J shaped curve are the big time coffee drinkers who actually have an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease by drinking >250 ml/day – that’s > 8 ounces/day.

J-shaped relationship between habitual coffee consumption and 10-year (2002-2012) cardiovascular disease incidence: The ATTICA study

APRIL 21, 2017

European Journal of Nutrition

Kouli GM, et al.

The objective of the study portrayed in this paper was to assess the relationship between coffee intake and 10–year cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in the ATTICA study, and whether this is modified by the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) at baseline. This information supports the protective impact of drinking moderate quantities of coffee (equivalent to approximately 1–2 cups daily) against CVD incidents. This protective impact was only significant for participants without MetS at baseline.


  • A sum of 3042 healthy adults (1514 men and 1528 women) living in the greater area of Athens were voluntarily selected to the ATTICA study amid 2001–2002.
  • In 2011–2012, the 10–year follow–up was performed in 2583 participants (15% of the participants were lost to follow–up).
  • Coffee intake was evaluated by a validated food–frequency questionnaire at baseline (abstention, low, moderate, heavy).
  • Incidence of fatal or non–fatal CVD event was recorded utilizing WHO–ICD–10 criteria and MetS was characterized by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment panel III (revised) criteria.


  • Overall, after controlling for potential CVD risk factors, the multivariate examination uncovered a J–shaped relationship between daily coffee drinking and the risk for a first CVD event in a 10–year period.
  • Especially, the odds ratio for low (<150 ml/day), moderate (150–250 ml/day) and heavy coffee intake (>250 ml/day), compared to abstention, were 0.44 (95% CI 0.29–0.68), 0.49 (95% CI 0.27–0.92) and 2.48 (95% CI 1.56–1.93), respectively.
  • This inverse association was also verified among participants without MetS at baseline, but not among participants with the MetS.

Journal Abstract